# Antenna and Wave Propagation by Bakshi: A Review of Concepts, Examples, and Applications

## Antenna and Wave Propagation by Bakshi PDF Download

If you are looking for a comprehensive and easy-to-understand textbook on antenna and wave propagation, you might want to check out Antenna and Wave Propagation by U.A. Bakshi and A.V. Bakshi. This book covers all the essential topics related to antenna theory and design, as well as radio wave propagation in various media. In this article, we will give you an overview of what this book has to offer, as well as how you can download it in PDF format for free.

## Antenna And Wave Propagation By Bakshi Pdf Download

## Introduction

Antenna and wave propagation are two fundamental concepts in wireless communication systems. An antenna is a device that converts electrical signals into electromagnetic waves, or vice versa. A wave is a disturbance that propagates through space or a medium, carrying energy and information. Propagation is the process of transmitting or receiving waves from one point to another.

Antennas are essential for establishing wireless links between transmitters and receivers. They determine the performance parameters such as signal strength, coverage area, interference level, data rate, etc. Therefore, it is important to understand how antennas work, how they can be designed for different applications, and how they interact with the surrounding environment.

Wave propagation is also crucial for wireless communication systems. It affects the quality, reliability, efficiency, and security of wireless links. Depending on the frequency range, distance, terrain, weather conditions, etc., radio waves can propagate in different modes and experience different effects such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, scattering, absorption, attenuation, etc. Therefore, it is important to understand how radio waves propagate in various media, how they can be modeled mathematically, and how they can be optimized for different scenarios.

Bakshi's textbook on antenna and wave propagation is a comprehensive guide that covers both theoretical and practical aspects of these topics. It explains the basic principles, concepts, and formulas in a clear and concise manner, with plenty of examples, diagrams, and tables. It also provides Scilab codes for solving antenna design and analysis problems, as well as numerical and objective questions for self-assessment. It is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students of electronics and communication engineering, as well as professionals and researchers in the field.

## Antenna Fundamentals

The first chapter of Bakshi's textbook introduces the fundamentals of antenna theory and design. It covers the following topics:

Basic concepts of radiation, directivity, gain, impedance, polarization, bandwidth, efficiency, etc.

Types of antennas such as wire antennas, aperture antennas, horn antennas, reflector antennas, microstrip antennas, etc.

Examples of antenna design and analysis using Scilab codes.

Some of the solved examples from this chapter are given below:

//Exa 2.1 Etheta calculation //Given data I0=1; //current in Amps lambda=1; //wavelength in meters r=1000*lambda; //distance in meters theta=%pi/3; //angle in radians //Calculations k=2*%pi/lambda; //wave number in radians per meter Etheta=(60*I0*k*sin(theta))/(%pi*r); //electric field intensity in volts per meter //Output disp(Etheta,'Etheta in volts per meter =')

//Exa 2.2 Directive gain calculation //Given data I0=1; //current in Amps lambda=1; //wavelength in meters l=lambda/50; //length of dipole in meters //Calculations k=2*%pi/lambda; //wave number in radians per meter Gd=(2*(sin(k*l/2))^2)/(k*l)^2; //directive gain //Output disp(Gd,'Gd =')

## Loop and Helical Antenna

The second chapter of Bakshi's textbook discusses the loop and helical antennas. It covers the following topics:

Advantages and disadvantages of loop and helical antennas.

Radiation patterns and input impedance of loop and helical antennas.

Design parameters and formulas for loop and helical antennas.

Some of the solved examples from this chapter are given below:

//Exa 3.1 Radiation resistance calculation //Given data a=0.01; //radius of loop in meters lambda=1; //wavelength in meters N=10; //number of turns //Calculations k=2*%pi/lambda; //wave number in radians per meter A=%pi*a^2; //area of loop in square meters Rr=20*(k*A*N)^2; //radiation resistance in ohms //Output disp(Rr,'Rr in ohms =')

//Exa 3.2 Directivity calculation //Given data C=10; //circumference of loop in meters lambda=1; //wavelength in meters N=1; //number of turns //Calculations k=2*%pi/lambda; //wave number in radians per meter A=C^2/(4*%pi); //area of loop in square meters Dmax=(15*(k*A*N)^4)/(32*%pi^2); //maximum directivity //Output disp(Dmax,'Dmax =')

## Antenna Arrays

The third chapter of Bakshi's textbook deals with the antenna arrays. It covers the following topics:

Definition and classification of antenna arrays.

Array factor and pattern multiplication.

Broadside and endfire arrays.

Binomial and Chebyshev arrays.

Some of the solved examples from this chapter are given below:

//Exa 4.1 Array factor calculation //Given data N=4; //number of elements d=lambda/4; //spacing between elements in meters psi=%pi/6; //phase difference between elements in radians theta=%pi/3; //angle of observation in radians //Calculations beta=psi-k*d*cos(theta); //phase angle in radians AF=sin(N*beta/2)/sin(beta/2); //array factor //Output disp(AF,'AF =')

//Exa 4.2 Beamwidth calculation //Given data

elements in array d=lambda/2; //spacing between elements in meters //Calculations thetaB=2*asin(lambda/(N*d)); //beamwidth in radians thetaB=thetaB*180/%pi; //beamwidth in degrees //Output disp(thetaB,'thetaB in degrees =')

//Exa 4.3 Directivity calculation //Given data N=10; //number of elements in array d=lambda/2; //spacing between elements in meters //Calculations D=2*N; //directivity //Output disp(D,'D =')

## Aperture and Lens Antenna

The fourth chapter of Bakshi's textbook covers the aperture and lens antennas. It covers the following topics:

Concept and types of aperture antennas.

Radiation characteristics of aperture antennas.

Huygens' principle and equivalence principle.

Types and applications of lens antennas.

Some of the solved examples from this chapter are given below:

//Exa 6.1 Effective aperture calculation //Given data f=10^9; //frequency in Hz lambda=3*10^8/f; //wavelength in meters D=10*lambda; //diameter of circular aperture in meters eta=0.55; //aperture efficiency //Calculations Ae=eta*%pi*D^2/4; //effective aperture in square meters //Output disp(Ae,'Ae in square meters =')

//Exa 6.2 Directivity calculation //Given data f=10^9; //frequency in Hz lambda=3*10^8/f; //wavelength in meters D=10*lambda; //diameter of circular aperture in meters eta=0.55; //aperture efficiency //Calculations D=eta*(%pi*D/lambda)^2; //directivity //Output disp(D,'D =')

## Propagation of Radio Waves

The fifth chapter of Bakshi's textbook deals with the propagation of radio waves. It covers the following topics:

Modes and mechanisms of radio wave propagation.

Effects of atmosphere, earth curvature, ionosphere, etc. on radio wave propagation.

Ground wave, sky wave and space wave propagation.

Fading and diversity techniques.

Some of the solved examples from this chapter are given below:

//Exa 7.1 Maximum usable frequency calculation //Given data fc=9*10^6; //critical frequency in Hz E=1.5; //angle of elevation in degrees //Calculations MUF=fc/sin(E*%pi/180); //maximum usable frequency in Hz //Output disp(MUF,'MUF in Hz =')

//Exa 7.2 Skip distance calculation //Given data f=15*10^6; //frequency in Hz fc=9*10^6; //critical frequency in Hz h=300; //height of ionosphere layer in km //Calculations E=asin(fc/f); //angle of elevation in radians E=E*180/%pi; //angle of elevation in degrees d=2*h*cos(E*%pi/180); //skip distance in km //Output disp(d,'d in km =')

## Conclusion

In this article, we have given you an overview of Bakshi's textbook on antenna and wave propagation. This book is a comprehensive and easy-to-understand guide that covers all the essential topics related to antenna theory and design, as well as radio wave propagation in various media. It explains the basic principles, concepts, and formulas in a clear and concise manner, with plenty of examples, diagrams, and tables. It also provides Scilab codes for solving antenna design and analysis problems, as well as numerical and objective questions for self-assessment.

If you are interested in learning more about antenna and wave propagation, you might want to read Bakshi's textbook. It is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students of electronics and communication engineering, as well as professionals and researchers in the field. It will help you to understand how antennas work, how they can be designed for different applications, and how they interact with the surrounding environment. It will also help you to understand how radio waves propagate in various media, how they can be modeled mathematically, and how they can be optimized for different scenarios.

So, how can you download Bakshi's textbook in PDF format for free? Well, there are some websites that offer free PDF downloads of various books, but we cannot guarantee their quality, accuracy, or legality. Therefore, we recommend that you buy the original book from a reputable publisher or online store. Alternatively, you can also access the book online from some academic platforms or libraries that have a subscription or membership. Either way, we hope that you will enjoy reading Bakshi's textbook on antenna and wave propagation and learn a lot from it.

## FAQs

Here are some frequently asked questions about antenna and wave propagation:

What are the prerequisites for studying antenna and wave propagation?

To study antenna and wave propagation, you should have a basic knowledge of electromagnetics, vector calculus, complex analysis, and differential equations. You should also be familiar with some software tools such as Scilab, MATLAB, or HFSS for numerical computations and simulations.

What are the best books for antenna and wave propagation?

There are many books available on antenna and wave propagation, but some of the most popular and recommended ones are:

Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design by C.A. Balanis

Antennas and Wave Propagation by J.D. Kraus and R.J. Marhefka

Antenna and Wave Propagation by U.A. Bakshi and A.V. Bakshi

Elements of Electromagnetics by M.N.O. Sadiku

Radio Wave Propagation: Principles and Practice by D.G. McCartney

What are the applications of antenna and wave propagation in real life?

Antenna and wave propagation have many applications in real life, such as:

Wireless communication systems such as mobile phones, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, satellite, radio, TV, radar, etc.

Remote sensing and imaging systems such as weather radar, sonar, lidar, MRI, etc.

Navigation and positioning systems such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, etc.

Biomedical and health care systems such as pacemakers, hearing aids, implantable devices, etc.

Military and defense systems such as electronic warfare, jamming, stealth, etc.

What are the challenges and future trends in antenna and wave propagation?

Some of the challenges and future trends in antenna and wave propagation are:

Designing compact, lightweight, low-cost, high-performance antennas for various applications.

Developing reconfigurable, adaptive, smart antennas that can change their shape, frequency, polarization, pattern, etc. according to the environment and user requirements.

Exploring new frequency bands such as millimeter-wave, terahertz, optical, etc. for higher data rates and bandwidths.

Incorporating new materials such as metamaterials, nanomaterials, graphene, etc. for enhancing the properties and functionalities of antennas.

switches, etc. for higher integration and functionality.

Improving the modeling and simulation techniques for antenna and wave propagation analysis.

Enhancing the measurement and testing methods for antenna and wave propagation characterization.

How can I contact Bakshi for any queries or feedback?

If you have any queries or feedback regarding Bakshi's textbook on antenna and wave propagation, you can contact them through their email addresses: uabakshi@gmail.com and avbakshi@gmail.com. You can also visit their website: http://www.technicalpublications.org/ for more information about their books and publications.

71b2f0854b